is connected to avoiding doing the things needed to be done by doing the things that are less important but bring more pleasure (Shepherd & Shaughnessy, 2020).  It is a habitual engaging in the task of the lower priority, or waiting to the last moment, when feelings like guilt, stress, anxiety occur. Procrastination brings negative consequences.  Procrastinators o fear of being looked at as someone who is lazy, not competent, or immature. Many procrastinators try to rationalize and justify their behaviors by giving explanations which make them feel less responsible for the task, or being out of their control. They just push away the responsibility of the task.

Past research show that procrastination coexists with other traits like weaker impulse control, lack of persistence, lack of work discipline, weak time management skills and inability to work in structured way (Zhou & Kam, 2017). Procrastinators avoid daily commitments, tend to be more negative on the way of their well-being and perform poorer on their goal’s achievement. 

Action faking

Is connected to procrastination. It’s the task that makes procrastinator believe that does something and make him feel less guilty. All the unnecessary task that doesn’t get individual anywhere but feels good that something is being done. Often for entrepreneurs is reading books, taking another self-development class, which makes believe that it’s needed for career development but in fact it keeps individual stuck at one place. No productivity.

Reasons for Procrastination

One of the biggest reasons for procrastination is perfectionisms, unrealistic expectations and fear of judgment (Shepherd & Shaughnessy 2020).  Another reason why individuals tend to procrastinate is when they are engaged in the task that seems boring. In such case, individual distract self with task that seems to be less boring. One way of dealing with the boredom is looking at the task from different perspective. Finding something interesting and meaningful in the task instead might create a positive and exciting feeling with more positive action.  Another reason for procrastination lies in stress and coping strategy. When individuals apprise the situation and don’t need to confront the potential threat in the present moment, they avoid and place the decision hanging somewhere in a future time. The avoiding coping style seems to push away the feeling of need to be responsible.

Motivation and Procrastination

Motivation has been a very important piece influencing procrastination. It’s proved that intrinsic motivation by far impacts the action connected to the task and lower procrastination when compared to extrinsic motivation, which tend to delay motivation. Intrinsic motivation is connected to engaging in activities because they make individual feel good and rewarding, these activities feel enjoyable and bring satisfaction.  It is further proved, that a person who sets goals, is intrinsically motivated and gives self-rewards, creates a stronger bond and commitment to the goals making them achievable and important.

Factors that promote Intrinsic motivation

  1. Curiocity.  An individual who is curious is interested in adventure, ready to learn new things and master skills
  2. Challenge. Although challenge could feel hard, certain level of challenge keeps things in life excited
  3. Recognition.  When the milestones are achieved, it’s rewarding to be able to recognize self-and/or to be recognized by others
  4. Accountability/Partnership.Developing accountability partner helps in becoming more cooperative and helps in feeling responsible


Shepherd, J., & Shaughnessy, M. (2020). Procrastination. Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health.

Zhou, M., & Kam, C. C. S. (2017). Trait procrastination, self-efficacy and achievement goals: the mediation role of boredom coping strategies. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY37(7), 854–872.


How do Deal with Procrastination

Overcome procrastination with choice and conscious action. Start new habitual behaviors that will make you less procrastinate

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